Official development assistance comprises grants or loans to developing countries and territories on the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) List of ODA recipients that are undertaken by the official sector with promotion of economic development and welfare as the main objective and at concessional financial terms. Technical cooperation is included. Grants, loans and credits for military purposes are excluded. Also excluded are aid to more advanced developing and transition countries as determined by the DAC.
Recipient countries' gross national income (GNI) at market prices is the sum of gross primary incomes receivable by resident institutional units and sectors. GNI at market prices was called gross national product (GNP) in the 1953 System of National Accounts. In contrast to gross domestic product (GDP), GNI is a concept of income (primary income) rather than value added. . GNI is equal to GDP (which at market prices represents the final result of the production activity of resident producer units) less taxes (less subsidies) on production and imports, compensation of employees and property income payable to the rest of the world plus the corresponding items receivable from the rest of the world.
The land-locked developing countries are, by region: Africa: Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe; Asia and the Pacific: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Nepal, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; Europe: The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and the Republic of Moldova (expected from 2003); Latin America and the Caribbean: Bolivia and Paraguay.
a) Net ODA received by each landlocked country (US$ million)
b) Net ODA received by each landlocked country / GNI of each landlocked country (%)
Components of ODA, GNI and the list of landlocked countries are described in the “Definition” section, above.
The estimates used in the global-MDG database are national figures, reported according to internationally agreed guidelines, and are not modified.
All data on ODA are collected by the OECD/DAC Secretariat from its 23 members, then checked and aggregated by the OECD/DAC Secretariat. The DAC Secretariat collects two sets of data:
1. DAC Questionnaire. A set of eight statistical tables completed annually in the Fall by DAC members, who report the amount and destination of their official and private flows made in the previous year. Detailed information is collected regarding the destination, form, terms, sector and tying status of official flows. A simplified form of the questionnaire is completed by multilateral agencies. Non-DAC donors also report on a voluntary basis on an abridged questionnaire. There is also a one-page “Advance Questionnaire on Main DAC Aggregates” completed by DAC members each April to give preliminary data on their ODA flows made in the previous year. See www.oecd.org/dac/stats/dac/guide for details.
2. Creditor Reporting System (CRS). A system for reporting individual official transactions (both ODA and other official flows) relevant to development. Reports are received directly from participating official agencies, including bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, development lending institutions, and export credit agencies. Follow up reports on the disbursement and repayment status of loans allow the Secretariat to calculate the debt burden of developing countries. See www.oecd.org/dac/stats/dac/guide for details.
The DAC Working Party on Statistics reviews the operation of the data collection system in annual formal meetings, and in informal meetings. The OECD/DAC Secretariat checks the data and their compliance with the methodology. Bilateral work with reporters is undertaken as necessary in order to resolve reporting issues.
There is not adjustment for missing data, as the indicator is calculated only in years and countries for which suitable data are available.
Data are available for approximately 31 countries.GNI data are only available for Afghanistan as from 2001 and Mongolia as from 1996.
Data are collected in year Y for year Y-e. Complete data are available towards the end of year Y.
Data are produced annually.
Regional and global aggregates are made by straight addition and do not involve any estimation for missing values.
Estimates are published annually at the end of the calendar year in International Development Statistics (IDS) database at the following address: