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8.17.                  The structural metadata in tourism statistics provide identifiers and descriptors of data. Without the associated metadata, any data item (e.g., a specific number) becomes meaningless and cannot be used. 

Box VIII.3

A simple numerical example of metadata

To treat any number, say, 10, as part of tourism   statistics would require its association with certain minimal metadata items.   A comma‑delimited record, combining data and metadata items, created to   achieve this goal might resemble the following (10, number of arrivals,   thousand, 2012, XYZ, Australia, Air). This record can be understood as   follows: there were 10 thousand arrivals in 2012 to country XYZ from   Australia by air. The structural metadata used in this example are: 

• Unit of measure (number of arrivals)

• Multiplier (thousand)

• Reference period (year 2012)

• Reporting country

• Country of residence (Australia)

• Mode of transport (air)

______________________________

Source: World   Tourism Organization.

8.18.                  Structural metadata should always be linked to reference metadata in order that a full explanation of the underlying concepts and methods used in data compilation may be provided (e.g., the basis for determination of the country of residence and the degree of accuracy the number 10). 

8.19.                  The required structural metadata can be determined on the basis of the recommendations contained in IRTS 2008 and in the preceding chapters of this Compilation Guide. Examples of a list of of structural metadata items are presented in Table VIII.1 and Table VIII.2. The first list is for use in data on tourism trips and characteristics of visitors and the second is for use in data on tourism expenditure. 

Table VIII.1 

Structural metadata for use in data sets on tourism trips and characteristics of visitors

Metadata item

Description of possible values of metadata item

Form of tourism

Inbound tourism, outbound   tourism, domestic tourism, internal tourism, national tourism, international   tourism

Unit of measure

Number of arrivals,   number of departures, number of visits

Multiplier

E.g., thousand,   million

Reference period

Month, quarter,   annual

Sex

Male, female

Age

Age groups

Economic activity   status

ICSE-93

Occupation

ISCO-08

Annual income

National   classification of income groups

Education

ISCED 1997

Travel party size

Number

Country of residence

Any in United Nations   Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use

Country of   destination

Any in United Nations   Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use

Territorial unit

Territorial unit   according to the national classification of territories and administrative   areas of a compiling country

Main purpose of trip

As defined in IRTS 2008, figure 3.1 and paragraphs 3.173.20

Duration of a trip   or visit

Number of overnight   stays and/or number of days

Mode of transport

As defined in IRTS 2008, figure 3.2

Type of   accommodation

National   classification of types of accommodation

 

Table VIII.2 

Structural metadata for use in data sets on tourism expenditure

Metadata   item

Description   of possible values of metadata item

Forms of tourism expenditure

Inbound tourism expenditure, outbound tourism   expenditure, domestic tourism expenditure, internal tourism expenditure,   national tourism expenditure, international tourism expenditure

Categories of   tourism expenditure

Classification of   categories of tourism expenditure: IRTS 2008, para. 4.26

Unit of measure

National currency, United   States dollars

Multiplier

E.g., thousand,   million

Reference period

Month, quarter,   annual

Country of origin

Any in United Nations   Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use

Country of   destination

Any in United Nations   Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use

 8.20.             The main components of tourism statistics reference metadata are: 

(a)            Concepts and definitions used in national tourism statistics (including definitions of particular data variables, and any deviations from IRTS 2008); 

(b)            Classifications applied and correspondence tables (including correspondence tables between national or regional classifications and classifications recommended in IRTS 2008); 

(c)            Description of data sources and data‑collection methods and their specificity (e.g., administrative sources, tourism demand‑ and supply‑side surveys, including comments on limitations of source data in terms of coverage, frequency, level of detail, reliability and availability; description of the methods used to validate the data and ensure their internal and external consistency); 

(d)            Description of data compilation procedures (e.g., description of specific procedures used for data aggregation, including estimation and imputations applied, or in deriving tourism data from statistical observations: for instance, calculating inbound tourism expenditure is not directly derived from one survey but requires the combination of information on flows of visitors (at arrival) and on expenditure of visitors classified by types (on departure); 

(e)            Description of dissemination policy (including coverage of the disseminated data, data release and revision schedules and confidentiality rules) (see sect. C below for details); 

(f)             Description of the disseminated data variables (including a list of such variables and their periodicity);  

(g)            Quality measures and indicators (see para. 8.10).