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24.5.        Goods under financial and operating leasing (see IMTS 2010, paras. 1.28 and 1.51). There are two kinds of leases in common usage: financial leases and operating leases. Goods are considered to be under financial lease if the lessee assumes the rights, risks, rewards and responsibilities in relation to the goods and can, from an economic point of view, be considered the de facto owner.[12] Goods under financial leases should be included in international merchandise trade statistics. An operating lease is any lease that does not have the above characteristics. Goods under operating leases should be excluded from international merchandise trade statistics. In practice, it may be difficult to differentiate between these two types of leases.[23] Therefore, in some cases, the duration of the lease can be used as an indication of whether the lease is financial (of one year or more) or operating (of less than one year). The issue of differentiating goods under financial leases and operating leases is described in chapter XXIII for ships and aircraft, as leasing transactions for these categories of goods, in particular aircraft, are very common. 


24.10.    Goods bundled with services (see IMTS 2010, para. 4.15 (g)). Often, the sale of goods is bundled with the provision of certain services, such as for maintenance or installation. The appropriate recording of these transactions is not a question of scope (i.e., whether or not to include the transaction), but rather of valuation. Goods bundled with services should be valued as follows: the statistical value applies only to the goods, and the value of any services associated with them should be excluded from IMTS, except for the services that are included according to the FOB- and CIF-type valuation of goods. However, in practice this might prove difficult for certain goods such as media (see IMTS 2010, para. 1.18). Goods bundled with services might be identified by their increased unit value.


[12] See IMTS 2010, annex A, para. A.11.

[23] See also BPM6, para, 5.57.